In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. These phases can be listed as follows:
A Quality assurance is required in each phase in above.

Introduction To Design Calculations Of Lightning Protection Systems
It is very important before explaining the design calculations of lightning protection systems to highlight some important topics or expressions that will be used in these calculations. These topics can be listed as follows:

And in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I explained the following:
Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Continued
Third: Detailed Design Phase

The lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process 
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected

Step#2: Risk Assessment Study

Methods Of Calculations For Risk Assessment Study
The risk assessment study can be done by (4) different methods as follows:
1 Manual Method (equations and tables method),which will be explained as per:
2Software Method,
3 Excel Sheets Method,
4Online Calculators Method.

First: Manual Method (Equations And Tables Method) as per IEC 623052

The Manual Method (Equations and Tables Method) for Calculations of Risk Assessment Study as per IEC 623052 can be reviewed in the following Articles:
First: Manual Method (Equations And Tables Method) as per NFPA 780

In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Seven ", I indicated that:

In this Article, I explained Method#1: The Simplified Risk Assessment and Some Steps from Method#2: The Detailed Risk Assessment.
Method#2: The detailed Risk assessment
The detailed Risk assessment Method includes the following steps:

Step#24: For each type of Risk to be considered, identify and calculate the risk components Rx that make up Primary risk Rn
Step#24 includes two main parts as follows:
I explained the first part: Identification of the Risk Components Rx in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Seven ".

Second Part: Calculations of the Risk Components Rx
Each component of
risk R_{x}
depends
on (3) parameters as follows:
The value of each
component of risk Rx can be calculated using the
following expression:
R_{X} = N_{X} x P_{X} x L_{X}
Where:
N_{x }= Number of Lightning
Strikes affecting the Structure or Service
P_{x} = Probability Of
Damage
L_{x }= Loss Factor

In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Eight ", I explained How to calculate the first two parameters Nx and Px as per NFPA 780.
Today, I will explain How to calculate the Third parameter Lx and I will continue explaining the steps of Method#2: The detailed Risk assessment as per NFPA780.
Calculations of Third
Parameter: L_{X} = Loss Factor

1 Loss Factors L_{t}, L_{f}, and L_{o}
The value of L_{t}, L_{f}, and L_{o} can be determined
in terms of the relative number of victims from the following approximate
relationship:
L_{A} = (n_{p} / n_{t}
) x (t_{p} / 8760)
Where:
L_{A}_{ }= value for loss of
human life
n_{p} = number of possible
endangered persons (victims)
n_{t} = expected total
number of persons (in the structure)
t_{p} = time in hours per
year for which the persons are present in a dangerous place, outside of the
structure (L_{t} only) or inside the structure (L_{t}, L_{f}, and L_{o})
Typical mean values
of L_{t}, L_{f}, and L_{o} for use when the
determination of n_{p} , n_{t} , and t_{p} is uncertain or
difficult, are given in Table1 which provides typical mean values for loss
of life, physical damage to a structure, or failure of an internal system from
a strike to or near a structure.
Table1: Typical Mean Values of Losses 
2 Value Of Loss Due To Injury To Humans
The following
equation calculates the value of injury to humans:
L_{A} = L_{U} = r_{a x }L_{t}
Where:
L_{A}_{ }= value for loss of
human life
L_{U} = value of loss of
living being
r_{a }= reduction factor
for type of surface soil or floor (Table2)
L_{t} = mean value of loss
of life (Table1)
Table2 Values of Reduction Factor (r_{a}) as a Function of
the Type of Surface of Soil or Floor

3 Value Of Loss Due To Physical Damage
The following
equation calculates the value of loss from physical damage to the structure:
L_{B} = L_{V} = r_{p }X r_{f }X h_{Z }X L_{f}
Where:
L_{B} = value of loss due
to direct strike to the structure
L_{V} = value of loss due
to strike to incoming service
r_{p} = reduction factor
for provisions taken to reduce consequences of fire (Table3)
r_{f} = reduction factor
for risk of fire to structure (Table4)
h_{Z}_{ }= factor for the
kinds of hazard in the structure (Table5)
L_{f} = mean value of
physical damage loss (Table1)
Table3: Values of Reduction Factor (r_{p}) as a Function of
Provisions Taken to Reduce the Consequences of Fire
Note:
Table4: Values of Reduction Factor (r_{f}) as a Function of
Risk of Fire of a Structure
Table5: Values of Hazard Factor (h_{Z})

4 Value Of Loss Due To Failure Of Internal
Systems
The following equation calculates
the value of loss due to failure of internal systems:
L_{C} = L_{M} = L_{W} = L_{Z} = L_{0}
Where:
L_{C} = value of loss due
to direct strike to the structure
L_{M} = value of loss due
to a strike near the structure
L_{W} = value of loss due
to a strike to a service connected to the structure
L_{Z} = value of loss due
to a strike near a service connected to the structure
L_{0} = mean value of loss
of internal system (Table1)

End of Step#24
After Calculating the
three parameters N_{X}, P_{X} and L_{X} which
consisting the risk components R_{x}. we can calculate each risk
components by using Specific formulas given in Table6.
Table1: Risk Components Formulas

Step#25: Calculate R = Σ Rx

the total risk due
to lightning (R) can be calculated by using the following
relationships:
R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4
Where:
R1 = RA + RB + RC* + RM*, + RU + RV + RW* + RZ*
R2 = RB + RC + RM + RV + RW + RZ
R3 = RB + RV
R4 = RA** + RB + RC + RM + RU** + RV + RW + RZ
*RC, RM, RW, and RZ in R1 are applicable
only for structures with risk of explosion, for structures with lifecritical
electrical equipment (such as hospitals), or other structures where the failure
of internal systems immediately endangers human life.
**RA and RU in R4 are applicable
only for structures where animals might be injured.

Step#26: Comparing the total risk R with the maximum
tolerable risk (R_{T}) for each type of loss relevant
to the structure

Comparing the total risk R of each loss with the maximum
tolerable risk (R_{T}), then we have (2) cases:
Case#1:
If the total risk R is equal or
less than the respective tolerable risk R_{T }i.e. R ≤ R_{T },
then Structure
is adequately protected for this type of loss and no lightning protection
is required for this type of loss,
Case#2:
If the total risk R is higher than
the tolerable risk RT i.e. R > R_{T},
then Install lightning protection measures in order to reduce R.

Step#27: go back to step#24 and make a series of trial
and error calculations until the total risk R is reduced below that of R_{T}
(R ≤ R_{T}).

In the next Article, I will explain The Software Method for Performing the Risk Assessment Study. Please, keep following.
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