ED-1 Course : Types of Engineering Drawings


there are many types of drawings that we will deal with during any project life as follows:

  1. Design drawings.
  2. Construction drawings.
  3. Shop drawings.
  4. Composite drawings.
  5. As built drawings.
  6. Record drawings.
Now, I will explain in brief each type of the above drawings and I promise all of you to make separate course for each type to explain it in detail.


1- Design drawing
Generally All Drawings are used to convey information disregard these drawings are rough sketches outlining ideas or neat/accurate detailed drawings.

The design drawings are those documents in which designers are able to put down their ideas to clarify their thought process.


There are two stages used to prepare design drawings as follows: see fig (1)
  1. Conceptual/Schematic Design drawings.
  2. Design Development drawings.
fig (1) Transition from schematic to design development drawings


1.1 Conceptual/Schematic Design drawings (30% of the design phase) see fig (2)

Objectives:
  • The first objective of Schematic Design drawings (SD’s) is to arrive at a clearly defined, feasible concept and to present it in a form that achieves Client understanding and acceptance. Although the design is not entirely represented, the schematic drawings can demonstrate basic spaces, scale and relationship of components. 
  • The second objective is to clarify the project Program, explore the most promising alternative design solutions, and provide a reliable basis for analyzing the cost of the project. 
  • the third objective is to illustrate the scale and relationship of Project components, taking into consideration existing conditions and utilities, the owner’s budget, the standards and codes. 
  • the forth objective is to prepare a brief report with sketches/conceptual plans for the purpose of determining what construction will or will not be included in the Construction Contract, based on the severity and priorities of the various work items and the owner’s budget. 

fig (2) schematic drawing

Method:
  • Theses drawings are prepared Based on the mutually agreed upon program and Project budget requirements and need approval by the owner or its representative. 

outputs:
  • These drawings represent approximately 30% of the design phase. 
  • These drawings are used to provide more comprehensive cost estimation for the project. 


Design Development drawings (70% of the design phase)  see fig (3)

Objectives: 

The objectives of the Design Development drawings are different from those of Schematic Design drawings as follows: 
  • The first objective is to define and describe all important aspects of the project so that all that remains is the formal documentation step of construction contract documents. 
  • The second objective is to focus more on the technical aspects of materials and building systems. 
  • The third objective is to enable the Client to understand how the project will function as well as give more detail about what it will look like. 
  • The forth objective is to establish the scope, and the size and character of the entire Project as to architectural, structural, civil, mechanical and electrical systems/materials and such other elements as may be appropriate. 


fig (3) design development drawing from fig (2)


Method:
  • Theses drawings are prepared Based on the approved Schematic Design drawings and any adjustments authorized by the owner in the program or Project budget, and confirm that all engineering requirements can be accommodated in the final design. These drawings will need approval by the owner or its representative. 
Outputs:
  • These drawings represent approximately 70% of the design phase. 
  • From these drawings a Construction Cost based upon present estimated quantities can be developed, to assure that the proposed work is still within the owner’s budget. 
  • Cost Estimation based on these design development drawings provides a greater amount of accuracy, made possible by better defined and detailed design documentation. Estimates at this phase may be used for value engineering applications before the completion of specifications and design drawings.

in the next topic I will explain other types of drawings.

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