Glossary of Lift Traffic Design Calculations – Part Two



This glossary will help you to understand the technical meaning for any term or expression which will facilitate your understanding for the Lift Traffic design calculations.

Please read this glossary carefully because you will need to come back to it while reviewing the articles of this course: Elevators Traffic Design and Motor power sizing Calculations.





Glossary of Lift Traffic design calculations – Part Two 





Term
Definition
Front
The front (of an elevator car) is the side in which the entrance is situated or in the case of multiple entrances the side containing the entrance nearest to the car operating panel.
Frothing (of oil)
The condition of hydraulic oil that has air entrapped in
it (aeration), due to the bad design of the components and their piping often where air bleeding is inadequate or air bleeding systems are not installed, which seriously effects system performance.
Full load current
Maximum continuous operating current.
Full wave rectifier
A rectifier that allows current to pass in one direction through the load during the full cycle of AC.
Fuse
A safety device that opens the electrical feed line to a circuit of more than the designated amount of current should flow through it.
Floor: lowest reversal
The floor at which a car reverses direction, when travelling in a downward direction having completed its last car call, in preparation to serve registered up landing calls, particularly during an interfloor traffic condition.

Floor: parking
A floor at which an elevator car is parked when it has completed serving its car calls and the supervisory control system does not reallocate it to serve further landing calls.
Floor: terminal
The highest and lowest floors at the extremities of travel of an elevator car within a building zone.
Floor: top terminal
Highest floor in a building zone from which elevator cars can load and unload passengers.
fire-fighting lift

lift designated to have additional protection, with controls that enable it to be used under the direct control of the fire brigade in fighting a fire.
goods/passenger lift

lift intended mainly for the transport of goods, which are generally accompanied by persons
group of lifts
two or more lifts that are electrically inter-connected
hoistway
A vertical opening through a building or structure in which elevators, material lifts, dumbwaiters etc. travel extending from the pit at the bottom to the underside of the roof or machinery space above.
inclination
The angle to which the escalator is manufactured.
incline

The sloped area between the upper and the lower landings /machine rooms.
inclined section

The portion of an escalator which is inclined, in general trigonometric terms could be referred to as the hypotenuse.
inclined transportation
Means of moving people or goods which is not on a level plane.
Interval
The average time between successive car arrivals at the main terminal (or other defined) floor with no specified level of car loading or traffic condition.
interval: down peak
The average time between successive car arrivals at the main terminal (or other defined) floor with no specified level of car loading during a down peak traffic condition.
interval: loading
The minimum time an elevator car is held at the main terminal (or other defined) floor, under the up peak traffic condition, after the first passenger has registered a call, before it is allowed to depart.
Interval: up peak

The average time between successive car arrivals at the main (or other defined) floor with cars assumed to be loaded to 80 percent of rated capacity during the up peak traffic condition.
interval: waiting
A term sometimes used to designate the up peak interval and at other times to designate the time a passenger waits for service.
landing

A portion of floor or corridor adjacent to elevator car entrances or escalator terminal end, where passengers may board or exit.
lift management
The management of elevator systems to provide in-service indication, equipment diagnosis, traffic monitoring and supervisory controller optimization.
load
The weight of passengers inside an elevator car.
Load relievingramp

A ramp with low friction insert that acts on the step chains to reduce the load on the chain wheels as they move round the upper curves of the escalator.
load weighing
Process of determining the number of passengers in an elevator car by weighing the load of the car and passengers.
load: average

The weight of passengers carried in an elevator car averaged over the number of trips made in a five minute period.
load: brake
The load which the brake of the escalator must be designed to stop and hold. Expressed as a percentage of the rated capacity.
load: rated

The weight of passengers which the elevator car is certified to carry.
lobby, [syn: main terminal (floor), foyer, ground (UK), first (USA).]
An entrance or corridor used as a waiting place.
lobby: sky
A terminal floor at the highest floor served by a low zone group of elevators, where passengers may wait for service by a high rise group of elevators. 
machine: electric drive

A driving machine where the energy is supplied by an electric motor.
machine: geared
A machine utilizing a gear for energy transmission.
machine: geared traction drive
A traction drive machine utilizing a gear for energy transmission.
machine: gearless traction drive
A traction drive machine with no intermediate gearing.
Machine: hydraulic drive.

A driving machine where the energy is supplied by the stored energy in a hydraulic fluid applied by means of a moving ram in a cylinder.
machine: indirect drive

An electric driving machine, where the motor is connected indirectly by means of belts, chains etc. to the sheave, shaft or gearing.
machine: rated load
The load which the machine of the escalator, passenger conveyor or elevator must be designed to move.

Machine: traction.

A direct drive machine, where the motion of the car is obtained through friction between the suspension ropes and the driving sheave.

main supply
Power provided from which the prime mover power is derived.
microprocessor
An electronic device which provides methods of control by reacting to input signals in accordance with an algorithm to provide predetermined output signals.
monitoring: remote

The signaling over a distance of the events (faults, passenger activity, elevator activity etc.) occurring in an elevator installation.
moving walkway

A type of passenger carrying device on which passengers stand or walk, and in which the passenger carrying surface remains parallel to its direction of motion and uninterrupted.
machinery space

Space inside or outside a well where the machinery, as a whole or in parts, is placed.
machine room

Room in which a machine or machines and/or the associated equipment are placed.
machine-room-less lift


passenger or goods/passenger lift, which does not require a separate machine room and where the machine is generally located in the well and the control panel is integrated into the wall of the well.
NOTE A machine-room-less lift is commonly referred to as an MRL lift.
overload

A condition where the rated capacity of a piece of equipment has been exceeded.
overspeed

A condition which is said to occur when an elevator exceeds it rated speed by a specified amount or the step band or Treadway.
parallel installation

An escalator installation where the units are mounted directly parallel and in line with each other.
passenger arrival rate
The rate at which passengers arrive for service by an elevator system.
passenger average time to destination
See time: passenger average to destination.

passenger conveyor

A power driven installation with endless moving walkway (e.g. pallets, belts) for the conveyance of passengers either on the same or between different traffic levels.
population: building
Total population of a building.
population: floor
Population of a specific floor in a building.
public service type

A type of escalator generally forming part of a public traffic system and of a more sturdy construction that a standard store type escalator.
passenger
Person transported by a lift in the car.
power system

System that provides power for directly controlling the motion of the lift.
quadruplex
A group of four cars sharing a common signaling system.
quality of service

The passengers perception of the efficiency of an elevator installation measured in terms of passenger waiting time.
quantity of service
The handling capacity of an elevator installation.
queue
An orderly line of persons waiting their turn.
rated load: brake

The load which the brake of the escalator must be designed to stop and hold.
rated load: step
The load which the escalator step must be designed to support.
rated load: structural
The total stated load imposed on the structure of the building.
rated load: truss

The load which the truss of an escalator must be designed to support.
rated load
load which the equipment has been designed to carry
rated speed
speed at which the equipment has been designed to operate
service: basement

The provision of passenger service to the basement or basements of buildings on a special or regular basis.
service: fireman’s

Elevator, which serves all floors in a building, and which can come under the sole command of a fireman in the event of a fire in the building.
service: independent

Operation of an elevator such that it only answers car calls and which is brought into operation by the use of a special key switch located in the car.
service: intensive duty
Where an elevator system makes 180 or more starts per hour.
service: light duty
Where an elevator system makes 90 or less starts per hour.
service: medium duty
Where an elevator system makes from 90 to 180 starts per hour.
signal: despatch

Signal given to the elevator power control system to cause the elevator car to move.
simulation

The development and use of models to aid in the evaluation of ideas and the study of dynamic systems or situations.
slope: moving walkway
The angle which the Treadway makes to the horizontal.
Soft start
Uses a form of electrical control equipment that limits the current and/or voltage during the starting cycle of the motor, to reduce the starting current and provide a smooth acceleration.
Speed: rated (elevator).

The linear car speed in the hoistway, which the elevator manufacturer contracts to supply.
speed: rated (escalator)

The rate of travel of the steps measured along the angle of inclination, with rated load on the steps, but in the case of reversible escalator the rated speed shall be the rate of travel of the steps in the ‘up’ direction.
speed: rated (moving walkway)
The rate of travel of the Treadway measured along the angle of inclination, with rated load on the treadway.
In the case of the reversible inclined moving walkway the rated speed shall be the rate of travel of the treadway in the ‘up’ direction.

star delta starter
The interlocking changeover contactors used to start two speed AC drive motors.
starts per hour (electric traction lifts)
Number of times during 1 h that the drive motor is energized in order for the lift to travel between any two floors in either direction.
starts per hour: electric traction elevator

For an electric traction elevator the number of starts per hour is the number of motor starts per hour and is the sum of starts in both up and down directions.
starts per hour: hydraulic elevator
For a hydraulic elevator the starts per hour is the number of pump motor starts per hour, i.e. to move the elevator in the up direction.
step: rated load
The load which the escalator step must be designed to support.
system: automatic remote monitoring

A system of remote monitor units on each machine, central processor, software and video display units that send, read, interpret and display operating and fault information from the monitored machines.
system: signaling

Means of indicating landing calls to the supervisory control system using a common riser of landing push buttons.
time: dispatch interval

The period of time between successive car departures from a terminal floor for a group of elevators controlled by a scheduling supervisory control system.
time: door closed
The period of time which elevator doors remain closed.
time: door closing

The period of time measured from the instant that the elevator door close push button is pressed (or the first visible door movement) until the door interlocks are made up.
time: door hold(ing)
See time: car call dwell and time: landing call dwell time.
time: door open
The period of time that the elevator doors remain open.
time: door opening
The period of time measured from the instant of the elevator car being level at a floor and when the doors are open 800 mm.
time: escalator flight time
The time taken for an escalator step to travel between floor levels.
time: interfloor

The period of time for an elevator car travelling at rated speed to pass between two adjacent floors.
time: landing call dwell

The time that the elevator doors are held open at a landing, after the door opening sequence has been completed, in response to a stop resulting from a landing call.
time: loading interval

The period of time that a car may be held at the main terminal after the first passenger has registered a car call.
time: multiple floor flight

The period of time measured from the instant when the door interlocks are made up at the departure floor until the instant that the elevator car is level at the next stopping floor, which can be more than two floors distant.
time: passenger average to destination
The average time that a passenger takes to reach the midpoint of travel, including average waiting time.
time: passenger journey

The period of time that a passenger spends travelling to a destination floor measured from the instant that the passenger registers a landing call at the departure floor until the instant the passenger alights at the destination floor.
time: passenger loading

The average period of time required for a single passenger to enter an elevator car.
time: passenger transfer
The average period of time required for a single passenger to enter or leave an elevator car.
time: passenger unloading
The average period of time required for a single passenger to leave an elevator car.
time: passenger waiting

The period of time that a passenger spends waiting for an elevator car measured from the instant that the passenger registers a landing call until the instant the passenger enters the car.
time: performance
The time for an elevator to move from one floor to the next adjacent floor, measured from the instant that the doors start to close at the departure floor to the instant the doors are open 800 mm at the arrival floor.
time: round trip

The average period of time for a single elevator car trip around a building, usually during up peak traffic conditions, measured from the time the car doors open at the main terminal, until the car doors reopen at the main terminal, when the car returns to the main terminal, after its trip around the building.
time: running

The total period of time during a round trip, when the elevator is moving.
time: single floor flight

The period of time measured from the instant when the door interlocks are made up at the departure floor until the instant that the elevator car is level at the next adjacent landing.
time: standing

The total period of time during a round trip, when the elevator is not moving.
time: stop

A composite time period which represents the ‘penalty’ time introduced by the elevator car stopping at a floor and which comprises the sum of door opening, door closing and single floor flight times minus the transit time to pass between two floors at rated speed (interfloor time).
time: system response

The period of time that it takes an elevator group to respond to the first registered landing call at a floor.
time: transit

The period of time that a passenger spends travelling in an elevator car measured, from the instant that the passenger boards the car, until the instant that the passenger alights at the destination floor.

traffic analysis

Determination of the statistical characteristics of passenger movements (average passenger waiting and journey times, percentiles, etc) in an elevator and escalator systems.
traffic: (balanced) interfloor
A traffic condition where there is no discernable pattern of calls and a random traffic pattern can be said to exist.
traffic: down peak

A down peak traffic condition exists when the dominant or only traffic flow is in a downward direction with all or the majority of passengers leaving the lift system at the main terminal of the building.
traffic: four way

A four way traffic condition exists when the dominant traffic flows to and from two specific floors, one of which may be the main floor.
traffic: intensive duty

Where an individual lift car is expected to undertake more than 180 starts per hour.
traffic: light duty

Where an individual lift car is expected to undertake
90 or less starts per hour.
traffic: medium duty

Where an individual lift car is expected to undertake between 90 and 180 starts per hour.
traffic: two way
A two way traffic condition exists when the dominant traffic flow is to and from one specific floor, which is not the main floor.

traffic: up peak
An up peak traffic condition exists when the dominant the passengers entering the lift system at the main floor of the building.
transportation: horizontal

Where the movement of people and materials is in the horizontal plane.
transportation: vertical

Where the movement of people and materials is in the vertical plane.
travel (1)
The vertical distance an elevator can move, measured between the bottom terminal floor and the top terminal floor of building zone.
travel (2)
The vertical distance an escalator serves between two levels.
trip: express (run)

The distance an elevator travels without stopping during a movement between terminal floors or when crossing an unserved building zone.
triplex

Three interconnected cars, sharing a common signalling system, controlled under a simple group control system operating under directional collective principles.
well

Space in which the car, the counterweight or the balancing weight travels.
NOTE This space is normally bounded by the bottom of the pit, the walls and the ceiling of the well.
zone

A number of floors, usually adjacent, in a building served by a group or groups of cars.
zone: high rise
A building zone situated in the middle or top of the building.
zone: levelling

A distance near to each landing floor in which an elevator car slows and ‘inches’ towards the floor level.
zone: local
A building zone adjacent to and including the main floor.
zone: parking

An area designated for the parking of cars when they have served their last car call.



End of Course



The previous and related articles are listed in below table:

Subject Of Previous Article
Article
Applicable Standards and Codes Used In This Course,
The Need for Lifts,
The Efficient Elevator Design Solution
Parts of Elevator System Design Process
Overview of Elevator Design and Supply Chain Process.

The Concept of Traffic Planning,
The (4) Methods of Traffic Design Calculations,
Principles of Interior Building Circulation:
A- Efficiency of Interior Circulation

B- Human Factors
C- Circulation and Handling Capacity Factors:
Corridor handling capacity,
Portal handling capacity,
Stairway handling capacity,
Escalator handling capacity,


Passenger Conveyors (Moving Walkways and Ramps) handling capacity,
Lifts Handling Capacity.
D- Location And Arrangement Of Transportation Facilities

Traffic design calculations:
1- Calculation of the Number of Round Trips for a Single Car,
2- Estimation of Population,
3- Calculation of the Average Number of Passengers per Trip (P),
4- Calculation of the Uppeak Handling Capacity (UPPHC),
5- Calculation of the Waiting Interval (Passenger Waiting Time),
6- Calculation of The percentage population served (%POP),



7- Estimation of Arrival Rate,
8- Calculation of the Round Trip Time RTT,
9- Calculation of the quality of service (Grade of Service)
Methods for Lift Traffic Design Calculations:
First Method:  The Conventional Design Method

Second Method: The Iterative Balance Method
How To Size The Lift Motor KW/HP:
1- Professional Formulas Method,
2- Baldor Formulas Method,
3- Equivalent Weight Method,
4- Buildings Energy Code (BEC)’S Tables Method,
5- Baldor Tables Method,
6- Curves Method.



Glossary of Lift Traffic design calculations – Part One







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