In Article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Two”, we indicated that the Principles of Interior Building Circulation are:
 Efficiency of Interior Circulation,
 Human Factors,
 Circulation and Handling Capacity Factors,
 Location and Arrangement of Transportation Facilities.
Also, we explained the first principle; Efficiency of Interior Circulation
in above article and explained the human factors in article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Three”.
And we indicated that the Circulation and Handling Capacity Factors will
include: Corridor handling capacity,
 Portal handling capacity,
 Stairway handling capacity,
 Escalator handling capacity,
 Passenger Conveyors (Moving Walkways and Ramps) handling capacity,
 Lifts Handling Capacity.
And we explained the
first four items in article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Four”.
Today we will continue explaining other Principles of Interior Building Circulation.
Principles
of Interior Building Circulation

Third: Circulation and Handling
Capacity Factors

5 Passenger Conveyors (Moving Walkways and
Ramps) Handling Capacity

There are (4) Factors
affect the Passenger Conveyors handling capacity as follows:
A Speed:
The running speed is determined by
the angle of inclination. The speed as in the escalators is measured in the
direction of
movement of
the steps or pallets, ie: along the horizontal.
B Step Width:
The available widths
are:
C Inclination:
The available escalator
s’ inclination is:
D Density of passengers:
A passenger conveyor
theoretically should permit denser congregations of passengers than an
escalator, as the space is not rigidly defined by steps. In practice, the
probable density will be about 2.0 Person/m2.
The theoretical handling
capacity of a Passenger Conveyors (Cc) in person/minute is given by equation
(1):
Cc =60V D
W equation (1)
Where:
Cc is the corridor
handling capacity (persons/minute)
V is average pedestrian
speed (m/s),
D is the average
pedestrian density (persons/m2),
W is the effective
corridor width (m).
Table1 indicates practical
handling capacities in persons per minute and persons per hour (bracketed)
assuming a density of 2.0 persons/m2, using Equation (1.1).
Table1
Handling Capacities of Passenger Conveyors

6 Lifts
Handling Capacity

In
article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Three” , we indicated that Passenger s’ body Constraints as per
European Standard EN81 is as follows:
The
recommended design density for passengers, when sizing a lift car in European
Standard EN81 uses a complicated formula which allows
This implies
that when riding in a 6person car, each passenger can occupy 0.22 m2, but
when in a 33person car the same passenger is only allocated 0.15 m2 of space.
These values in above table require passengers to be very crowded in a large
car.
Fig.1 illustrates the
density pattern for a lift with a rated capacity of 16 persons (rated load
1275 kg) with 16 persons present. It can be seen that the lift is not able
accommodate this number of passengers, as the platform area is 2.9 m2, which
would allow some 14 persons to be accommodated. Even with 14 persons present,
the passengers would be in the intimate zone as shown in Table2.
Fig.1: (16)
person lift car occupied by (16) persons
Table2
Number of passengers as per European Standard EN81
The number of
passengers shall be obtained by 2 methods:
Method#1: from the formula,
Number of passengers = car rated load/75,
and the result rounded
down to the nearest whole number; or
Method#2: from Table3 which give the smaller
value.
Table 3 
Number of passengers and minimum car available area
Notes:
Calculation
of Lifts
Handling Capacity:
The handling capacity of
a lift in passengers per hour is given by:
Cl =
3600P/ INT
Where:
Cl is the handling capacity
(passengers/h),
P is the number of
passengers in the car
INT is the interval between
lift arrivals at the main floor (s).
The Actual Car Capacity:
Table4 indicates that the
actual car capacity figures are smaller than the rated car capacity suggested
by dividing the rated load by 75.
Table4:
Car loading and car capacity
Notes to Table4:

Comparison
between Lifts and Escalators

The comparison between lifts and escalators can be summarized in the
following table:
Table5 provides guidance on
stair usage as per floors travelled.
Table5: Stair
usage
Table6 offers some guidance to
the division of passengers between lifts and escalators in offices as per
floors travelled.
Table6: Lifts
and escalators: division of traffic
Note:

Comparison
of “Handling” Capacities

It might now be
interesting to compare the “handling” capacities of the various building
elements in persons/minute based on the following conditions:
Table7 indicates the
Comparison of handling capacities in persons/minute of the various building
elements in persons/minute.
* Passengers constrained
by car walls.
Table7

Fourth: Location
And Arrangement Of Transportation Facilities

The location and
arrangement of the passive circulation elements (corridors, portals) and the
active circulation elements (passenger conveyors, escalators and lifts),
should take account of:
The main principles to
bear in mind when selecting the Location and arrangement of transportation
facilities are:
The (3) possible
Locations of transportation facilities inside a building are as follows:
Notes:

A Location
and Arrangement of Stairs and Escalators

There are several
standard escalator arrangements, as shown in Fig.2.
Fig.2:
Escalator configurations; (a) parallel, (b) crossover, (c) walk Round
Recommendations for ideal
Location and arrangement of Stairs and Escalators

B Location
and Arrangement of Lifts

The preferred
arrangements from BS5655: Part 6 of (2) to (4) lifts arranged side by side
are given in Fig.3 and for (2) to (8) lifts arranged opposite each
other are shown in Fig.4.
Note all the lobbies,
indicated (L), have separate waiting areas with no through circulation.
Fig.3: preferred
arrangements for lift cars: side by side (or in line)
Fig.4:
Preferred arrangement for lift cars: facing
Recommendations for ideal
Location and arrangement of Lifts
The ideal lobby size
would be one which could accommodate one full car load of passengers waiting
and permit the simultaneous disembarkation of one full car load of arriving
passengers.
Example#1:
Suppose there are four
21 person lifts arranged in a facing (2×2) configuration. What distance
across the lobby would be appropriate given the car width is 2100 mm and the
car depth is 1600 mm? The cars occupy a 6.0 m length of lobby (along the
front of the cars).
Solution:
Case#1: Assume that a 21
person car can accommodate 21 persons.
When one of the cars in
the group of four arrives, it will disembark 21 persons. Thus for these
passengers to be accommodated at the dense level of occupancy of 2.0
persons/m2 in the lobby, an area of 10.5 m2 = 21 /2 would be required.
If it is assumed that
there are 21 persons waiting to board, then they will require a further area
of 10.5 m2.
Hence a total of 21 m2
is required.
As the lobby length is
6.0 m, then a width of 3.5 m is indicated, which is slightly larger than the
ISO recommendation of the sum of the depths of two facing cars, ie: 3.2 m.
Case#2: Industry
practice assumes a car loading of 80% of rated capacity
As a 21 person car will
generally only be filled to an average occupancy of 80% of its rated load ie:
17 persons,
Thus for these
passengers to be accommodated at the dense level of occupancy of 2.0
persons/m2 in the lobby, an area of 8.5 m2 = 17 /2 would be required.
If it is assumed that
there are 17 persons waiting to board, then they will require a further area
of 8.5 m2.
Hence a total of 19 m2
is required.
As the lobby length is
6.0 m, then a width of 3.2 m would probably be sufficient which is equal to
the ISO recommendation of the sum of the depths of two facing cars, ie: 3.2
m.

In the next article, we will start
explaining the Traffic Design Calculations. Please, keep following.
The
previous and related articles are listed in below table:
Subject Of Previous Article

Article

Applicable Standards and Codes Used In This Course,
The Need for Lifts,
The Efficient Elevator Design Solution
Parts of Elevator System Design Process
Overview of Elevator Design and Supply Chain
Process.


The Concept of Traffic Planning,
The (4) Methods of Traffic Design Calculations,
Principles of Interior Building Circulation:
A Efficiency of Interior Circulation


B Human Factors


C Circulation and Handling Capacity Factors:
Corridor handling
capacity,
Portal handling capacity,
Stairway handling
capacity,
Escalator handling
capacity,


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